In the age of the Vikings (800-1100AD) Scandinavia used a runic alphabet known as Younger Futhark (fuþark). It was made up of 16 sound symbols known as runes. Younger Futhark developed from Elder Futhark (150 to 800 AD), an older form of Germanic language consisting of 24 runes. Both alphabets are called after their first six runes F-U-þ-A-R-K. Younger Futhark is basically the written form of Old Norse – the language of the Vikings.

Vikings AD) used alphabet called "Younger Futhark" (fuþark), 16 sound symbols known as runes. Developed from "Elder Futhark" to 800 AD), an older form of Germanic language of 24 runes.

Sweden, Island of Gotland, Visby. Detail from Viking carved rune stones in the Historical Museum of Gotland

Sweden, Island of Gotland, Visby. Detail from Viking carved rune stones in the Picture stone gallery of the Historical Museum of Gotland

Brooches of the Viking era Urnes Style

Viking brooches: Inspired by nature but not enslaved to 'realism', this subtle style emphasizes the grace and beauty of that which, at bottom, we do not truly understand - but might attain to if we only trust our instincts.

Rune stone, Skramsta, Uppland, Sweden

Rune stone in Skråmsta. The inscription says: "Saxe had these memorials made in memory of Est, his fader, and Torgunn (in memory of) her son.

Urnes style Dragon pendant from 10th century CE, Norway

Urnes style Dragon pendant from the Viking age - century CE, Norway Beauty!

G_134,_Sjonhem.JPG (1917×3011) Scandanavia 11thC Varangian Guard

Runestone G 134 from Gotland. Contains first written mention of 'Blakumen' (Vlachs/ Romanians) in the extra-Carpathic regions of modern-day Romania.

Archeological finds at Gamla Uppsala Museum, Sweden. https://www.facebook.com/pages/Gamla-Uppsala-museum/99947166159

Archeological finds at Gamla Uppsala Museum, Sweden. https://www.facebook.com/pages/Gamla-Uppsala-museum/99947166159

Brooches of the Viking era Urnes Style

Viking brooches: Inspired by nature but not enslaved to 'realism', this subtle style emphasizes the grace and beauty of that which, at bottom, we do not truly understand - but might attain to if we only trust our instincts.

Rune stone in Näsby Odensala, Sweden. The inscription says: “Ingefast had this stone raised in memory of Torkel, his father, and in memory of Gunhild, his mother. They both drowned”.

Rune stone (U in Näsby Odensala. The inscription says: "Ingefast had this stone raised in memory of Torkel, his father, and in memory of Gunhild, his mother. They both drowned". Runsten (U vid Näsby Odensala.

Skånela    Végeirr(?) had the stone cut in memory of Bersa(?)/Birsa(?) his son; Fastlaug had the stone cut in memory of her brother Fullugi.      As you can see, this rune stone has been broken into smaller pieces ( probably to be used as building material ), but now it's mended again. The beast has wings, which is very rare....

Skånela Végeirr(?) had the stone cut in memory of Bersa(?)/Birsa(?) his son; Fastlaug had the stone cut in memory of her brother Fullugi. As you can see, this rune stone has been broken into smaller pieces ( probably to be used as building material ), but now it's mended again. The beast has wings, which is very rare....

Turinge rune stone: "Ketill and Bjôrn, they raised this stone in memory of Þorsteinn, their father; Ônundr in memory of his brother and the housecarls in memory of the just(?) (and) Ketiley in memory of her husbandman. These brothers were the best of men in the land and abroad in the retinue, held their housecarls well. §B He fell in battle in the east in Garðar (Russia), commander of of the retinue, the best of landholders”.

Turinge rune stone: "Ketill and Bjôrn, they raised this stone in memory of Þorsteinn, their father; Ônundr in memory of his brother and the housecarls in memory of the just(?) (and) Ketiley in memory of her husbandman. These brothers were the best of men in the land and abroad in the retinue, held their housecarls well. §B He fell in battle in the east in Garðar (Russia), commander of of the retinue, the best of landholders”.

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