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cA. 75-60 BCE. Roman Funerary relief of a freed married couple. This was a common portrayal by former slaves. At this time the ratio of slave to citizen was 1 to 3. Only after being freed did their marriage have legal status hence the portrayal has layers of meaning. The wife is idealized in the modesty pose of virtue while the man looks natural wearing the ('arm-sling' style) Toga the symbol of a roman citizen -a free man. Via Statilia, Rome. Capitoline Museums

cA. 75-60 BCE. Roman Funerary relief of a freed married couple. This was a common portrayal by former slaves. At this time the ratio of slave to citizen was 1 to 3. Only after being freed did their marriage have legal status hence the portrayal has layers of meaning. The wife is idealized in the modesty pose of virtue while the man looks natural wearing the ('arm-sling' style) Toga the symbol of a roman citizen -a free man. Via Statilia, Rome. Capitoline Museums

From Trajan's column - the severed heads of Dacians presented to Trajan himself.  it seems the presentation of decapitated heads to the emperor himself was standard protocol. There are echoes of Pompey’s head being presented to Caesar and Cicero’s head to Antony.

From Trajan's column - the severed heads of Dacians presented to Trajan himself. it seems the presentation of decapitated heads to the emperor himself was standard protocol. There are echoes of Pompey’s head being presented to Caesar and Cicero’s head to Antony.

Funerary Portrait of Young Girl  c.25-37 AD Roman Egypt (late Tiberian) Traditional Egyptian burial practices continued well into Roman time...

Funerary Portrait of Young Girl c.25-37 AD Roman Egypt (late Tiberian) Traditional Egyptian burial practices continued well into Roman time...

central panel of a marble sarcophagus, Roman, found in the Via Praenestina, third century CE.This relief depicts a seated male teacher holding a scroll and reading to a female student. Rome, Tabularium (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2007

central panel of a marble sarcophagus, Roman, found in the Via Praenestina, third century CE.This relief depicts a seated male teacher holding a scroll and reading to a female student. Rome, Tabularium (Capitoline Museums). Credits: Barbara McManus, 2007

Dancing Maenad, Roman relief (marble), copy after Greek original, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, (original 5th c. BC), (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Dancing Maenad, Roman relief (marble), copy after Greek original, 1st century BC - 1st century AD, (original 5th c. BC), (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Roman Gold Earrings, Period, later than Date: A.D. 4th century or later Geography: Egypt

Roman Gold Earrings, Period, later than Date: A.D. 4th century or later Geography: Egypt

Salonina Matidia - profile, head of (colossal) Roman statue (marble), 2nd century AD, (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome).

Salonina Matidia - profile, head of (colossal) Roman statue (marble), 2nd century AD, (Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome).

The Romans were terrified of the Dacians weapons. Their preferred sword was the single edged falcata: capable of severing limbs with a single blow. Perhaps their most dreaded weapon was the war scythe. The Romans had to adapt gladiator armor to counter it   The Dacian war scythe was known as a falx; the falcata was a Spanish weapon.  Dacian swords were short and doubled-edged, presumably based on the gladius or the xiphos.

The Romans were terrified of the Dacians weapons. Their preferred sword was the single edged falcata: capable of severing limbs with a single blow. Perhaps their most dreaded weapon was the war scythe. The Romans had to adapt gladiator armor to counter it The Dacian war scythe was known as a falx; the falcata was a Spanish weapon. Dacian swords were short and doubled-edged, presumably based on the gladius or the xiphos.

Detail from Trajan's Column in Rome (101-106 AD).- ANNEE 55 av JC: Germains et Bretons, 2) Traversée du RHIN, 3: En plus les UBIENS, seul peuple d'outre-Rhin a être "ami des Romains", en appellent à César contre les SUEVES de plus en plus entreprenants. Le proconsul ayant décidé pour toutes ces raisons de traverser le fleuve, fait construire un pont sur le Rhin, le 1° de l'histoire selon Suétone.

Detail from Trajan's Column in Rome (101-106 AD).- ANNEE 55 av JC: Germains et Bretons, 2) Traversée du RHIN, 3: En plus les UBIENS, seul peuple d'outre-Rhin a être "ami des Romains", en appellent à César contre les SUEVES de plus en plus entreprenants. Le proconsul ayant décidé pour toutes ces raisons de traverser le fleuve, fait construire un pont sur le Rhin, le 1° de l'histoire selon Suétone.

Sebasteion, the emperor crowned by the Roman People.    Aphrodisias Museum.

Sebasteion, the emperor crowned by the Roman People. Aphrodisias Museum.

Souscrivez! Banque d'Alsace et de Lorraine / Charles Fouqueray /  France - 1920 /  32 x 48 in (81 x 121 cm) / Buy bonds!  Bank of Alsace and Lorraine  National Bonds

Souscrivez! Banque d'Alsace et de Lorraine

Souscrivez! Banque d'Alsace et de Lorraine / Charles Fouqueray / France - 1920 / 32 x 48 in (81 x 121 cm) / Buy bonds! Bank of Alsace and Lorraine National Bonds

Tombstone of Marcus Favonius Facilis a Roman army officer, from the Polonia region of Italy he was a centurion in the Legio XX Valeria Victrix.  Camulodunum/Colchester, Ist century CE.

Tombstone of Marcus Favonius Facilis a Roman army officer, from the Polonia region of Italy he was a centurion in the Legio XX Valeria Victrix. Camulodunum/Colchester, Ist century CE.

Wall painting from Pompeii: woman with scroll and child reading (Roman, 1st century CE)

Wall painting from Pompeii: woman with scroll and child reading (Roman, 1st century CE)

Picture shows Roman woman, Marble, Roman.  Getty Villa.   Women in ancient Rome wear the palla over the stola. The palla used to made of wool and had rectagle shape. The Roman women will put palla on top of her stola when she went outside.

Picture shows Roman woman, Marble, Roman. Getty Villa. Women in ancient Rome wear the palla over the stola. The palla used to made of wool and had rectagle shape. The Roman women will put palla on top of her stola when she went outside.

Hadrianic Relief Representing Phrygia Archaeological Museum Naples Possibly from the Hadrianeum

Hadrianic Relief Representing Phrygia Archaeological Museum Naples Possibly from the Hadrianeum

The Preatorian guard of Augustus, Roman relief (marble), 1st century AD, (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

The Preatorian guard of Augustus, Roman relief (marble), 1st century AD, (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

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